Osteoclastogenesis is the formation of osteoclasts- the cells which lead to bone resorption.
This process dissolves both the hard and the soft components of the bone. Osteoclastogenesis also occurs in teeth where the roots of teeth can be resorbed by osteoclasts.
Curcumin, the polyphenolic compound is turmeric, is a powerful therapeutic agent. It exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity.
It can help in the prevention of replacement resorption in replanted teeth, thus, acting as an effective anti-resorptive agent.
Low bioavailability of curcumin has always been a problem. Using piperine (obtained from black pepper) along with curcumin can help in increasing curcumin’s bioavailability.
What Happened in the Study
A group of scientists explored the effects of curcumin and piperine in preventing and treating osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264.7 macrophages.
They examined the cytotoxic effects of curcumin and piperine on periodontal fibroblasts, osteogenic sarcoma cells and precursors of osteoclastogenesis.
They also studied the effects of curcumin on the receptor responsible for activating osteoclastogenesis induced by NF-kB ligand.
They found that curcumin was toxic to all cells at concentrations above 10 μmol/L whereas piperine was toxic to RAW macrphages and osteogenic sarcoma cells only at concentrations above 30 μmol/L.
They also found that a combination of curcumin and piperine could successfully suppress the activity of certain specific osteoclast markers, hence, inhibiting osteoclastogenesis completely.
Bone and tooth resorption by the process of osteoclastogenesis can be suppressed by the curcumin-piperine combination.
They decrease the activity of tartarate- resistant acid phosphatase and inhibit the expression of osteoclast markers.
In addition to this, both curcumin and piperine are safe at low concentrations and do not produce cytotoxic effects.
Thus, the curcumin-piperine combination can be used as a powerful therapeutic agent against replacement resorption of replanted avulsed teeth.